Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Definition and Examples of Pseudowords

A pseudoword is a fake word—that is, a string of letters that resembles a real word (in terms of its orthographic and phonological structure) but doesnt actually exist in the language. Also known as  jibberwacky or a wug word.   Some examples of monosyllabic pseudowords in English are heth, lan, nep, rop, sark, shep, spet,  stip, toin, and  vun. In the study of language acquisition and language disorders, experiments involving the repetition of pseudowords have been used to predict literacy achievement later in life. See Examples and Observations below. Also, see: Ghost WordLiteracyMountweazelNeologismNonce WordNonsense WordStunt Word Examples and Observations Pseudowords are letter strings which have no meaning, but which are pronounceable because they conform to the orthography of the language—as opposed to nonwords, which are not pronounceable and have no meaning.(Hartmut Gunther, The Role of Meaning and Linearity in Reading. Writing in Focus, ed. by Florian Coulmas and Konrad Ehlich. Walter de Gruyter, 1983)Pseudowords and Phonological Processing SkillsIn an alphabetic language such as English, the best measure of phonological processing skill is the reading of pseudowords; that is, pronounceable combinations of letters that can be read by the application of grapheme-phoneme conversion rules, but they are, by definition, not real words in English. Examples include pseudowords such as shum, laip, and cigbet. Pseudowords can be read by application of grapheme-phoneme conversion rules even though the words are not real and have not been encountered in print or in spoken language. Although it has been argued that pseudowords may be read by analogy to words, some awareness of grapheme-phoneme conversion rules and segmentation skills are necessary to read a pseudoword correctly. For example, for a correct reading of the pseudoword dake, it must be segmented into an initial letter d and a rime or word body ake; the latter could be read by analogy to cake, but the sound of d and the segmentation itself are, in fact, phonological processing skills.(Linda S. Siegel, Phonological Processing Deficits and Reading Disabilities. Word Recognition in Beginning Literacy, ed. by Jamie L. Metsala and Linnea C. Ehri. Lawrence Erlbaum, 1998)Pseudowords and Brain ActivityIn some studies no differences in brain activation for real words and pseudowords are observed (Bookheimer et al. 1995), indicating that the tasks activate brain regions for orthographic and phonological but not semantic coding. . . . Presenting the same pseudoword repeatedly so that it is no longer an unfamiliar word reduces activity in right lingual gyrus, sug gesting that that structure plays a role in learning to recognize familiar words (Frith et al. 1995).(Virginia Wise Berninger and Todd L. Richards, Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists. Elsevier Science, 2002) Alternate Spellings: pseudo word, pseudo-word

Friday, May 15, 2020

Mill and Kant Utilitarian Morality - 1056 Words

1. In his discussion of the first formulation of the categorical imperative (Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law) Kant draws a distinction between perfect and imperfect duties. Introduce this formulation of the categorical imperative and discuss how we should make the distinction between perfect and imperfect duties. This formulation introduces the concept of doing something for the right reason not for an ulterior motive. The character of the motive is what dictates the adherence to the imperative. This is possible with autonomy, the decision to act according to moral duty without outside influence. â€Å"If the action would be good solely as a means to something else it is hypothetical. If the action is represented as good in itself and therefore as necessary for a will which of itself accords with reason, then the imperative is categorical†. Kant To distinguish between perfect an imperfect duties. Try to universalize the maxim that is about to be acted. Would you want this maxim to be acted upon your person? By universalizing, you can test whether, your needs are being privileged over the needs of others. 2. At the start of section two of the Grounding, Kant addresses a potential criticism from a group he calls ‘self-love moralists.’ Present this criticism in your own words. How does Kant respond to this criticism? The self-love argument is that all actions are for self. That no act is performedShow MoreRelatedThe Ethical Argument For Veganism1685 Words   |  7 Pages This essay analyzes the ethical argument for veganism through the lens of philosophy using Utilitarianism defined by John Stuart Mill, and Deontological ethics according to Immanuel Kant. Through the use of these theories, I will justify the moral worth and legitimacy of the animal welfare debate that is often used to promote a cruelty-free and vegan lifestyle by analyzing questions of animal sentience, the worth of an animal’s happiness, and the right humanity supposedly has to the lives of otherRead MoreThe Long Standing Debate On Ethics1253 Words   |  6 Pagestheir own theories in determining whether an action is good or bad. John Stuart Mill focuses on a utilitarian perspective and utilizes the idea of consequentialism and on the other hand, Immanuel Kant avoids the consequentialist argument and supports a deontological perspective in analyzing morality and ethics. Both arguments, valid as they may be, strongly contradict one another, mostly on the basis that Kant and Mill look at very different parts of the equation. Both thinkers appeal to a sense ofRead MoreThe Moral Theory Of Utilitarianism1725 Words   |  7 Pagesproblems with utilitarian thoughts are revealed. It has been widely debated by many philosophers, including G.E. Moore and Immanuel Kant. Like these two philosophers, I argue that utilitarianism is inadequate because of its contradictory nature as a moral theory. It highlights the principle of utility in seeking the greatest pleasure, allowing egotistic and hedonistic actions to be considered moral. John Stuart Mill, born in 1806 in London, is one of the most infamous utilitarians in history. HeRead MoreThe Moral Dispute Of John Stuart Mill And Immanuel Kant1500 Words   |  6 Pagestheory and argument will be explored further in this review along with the works of some of his successors. The Moral Dispute John Stuart Mill vs Immanuel Kant Philosopher John Stuart Mill’s theory highlights utilitarianism and Kantian theory would be the total opposite. Mill’s position links happiness with morality and focused solely on the outcomes of an action. Philosopher John Kant’s theory emphasizes the importance of rationality, reliability, and neutrality with highlightsRead MoreEssay on The Golden Rule in Kant and Mills Ethical Theories1320 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose. The two most important philosophers that deal with ethics are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. Kant’s ethical theory is Kantianism or deontological ethics. Mill’s ethical theory is utilitarianism. Both philosophers’ theories have many differences; Kant’s theory deals with conduct, seeking reason for good action in duty. Mill’s theory deals with consequences and maximizing human happiness. However both Kant and Mill’s ethics relate to the important biblical principal of the Golden RuleRead MoreEthics and Morality Essay1347 Words   |  6 PagesEthics and Morality Is it immoral for a person to write lies on his/her resume? This question poses many questions in its self. How fictitious is the lie, what are you lying about, what could be the consequences of this lie and whom and how will this lie affect the people involved? How would John Stuart Mill answer this question? Mills general position seem to be that one should do what will produce the most happiness, pleasure and with the absence of pain. With this in mind for one toRead MoreDr. Ethos, The Chief Resident Of A Hospital1591 Words   |  7 Pagespatients. The question is, what would Dr. Ethos do, if he were Utilitarian (Act vs. Rule)? What would Dr. Ethos do, if he were a Deontologist (Kantian)? Utilitarianism John S. Mill describes Utilitarianism, also known as â€Å"The greatest happiness principle†, as a philosophical theory of morality. This theory focuses on the end result, rather than the motive behind it, which makes it a consequential theory. It argues that the morality of the action is solely dependent on the action’s results. TheRead MoreUtilitarianism And Immanuel Kant1213 Words   |  5 Pageswill give him the best outcome. The categorical imperative rule of Kant seems to suggest that actions must be universal for them to be classified as either moral or immoral. John Stuart Mill also strongly contributed to the development of philosophical views that have continued to influence different aspects in a variety of different disciplines. Among his many developments is the utilitarianism theory that explains morality. Mill argues that the usefulness or moral worth of an action is determinedRead MoreUtilitarian Theory Of Moral Status1189 Words   |  5 PagesIn this paper, I intend to show that utilitarian theory of moral status is much more preferable than deontological approach. I will demonstrate this idea by using by using the concept of moral laws by Immanuel Kant and John Mill along with Peter Singer’s Speciesism and Moral Status. Moral status is a term that deals with who and what is more valuable, or have higher quality, in which they should be treated specially; and both deontological and utilitarian aspect of moral status is different fromRead MoreUtilitarianism : The Greatest Happiness Principle1176 Words   |  5 PagesUtilitarianism John S. Mill describes utilitarianism, also known as â€Å"The greatest happiness principle†, as a philosophical theory of morality. This theory is focused on the end result (a consequential theory) rather than the motive behind it. It argues that the morality of the action is solely dependent on the action’s results. The action is morally ethical as long as it produces the greatest happiness for the majority of people involved. Mill mentions, â€Å"†¦ the greatest happiness principle holds

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Just Mercy Essays Juveniles Being Tried As Adults

In Contrast to Bryan Stevenson’s â€Å"Just Mercy† stories of juveniles being tried as adults, Jason Zeidenberg in the article â€Å"The Risks Juveniles Face When They Are Incarcerated with Adults† strongly emphasizes the dangers and consequences that juveniles face when they are tried as adults. Zeidenberg states the consequences of juveniles being raped, assaulted, committing suicide and the effects of being victimized. Children who are housed in the same facility as Adults is not a good idea nor a good mix, according to Zeidenberg a â€Å"15-year-old girl was sexually assaulted in Ohio by a deputy after she was placed in an adult jail for a minor in fraction.† â€Å"In Kentucky, a 15-year-old boy was placed in a jail cell following an argument with his†¦show more content†¦Not one person, was created to be perfect beings, but children are pure and innocent and their mental and critical thinking skills are not fully developed and strong enough to handle adult prisons. On the other hand, children are most likely to vividly remember delinquent actions they performed whether it was done intentionally in a â€Å"heat of the moment† action such as Charlie’s case in Bryan Stevenson’s â€Å"Just Mercy† or unintentionally due to peer-pressure or self-protection in most juveniles’ case. Moreover, the justice system is hypocritical to their own children, â€Å"Protect the young† but places the young in harm’s way. Children in adult prisons are prone to rape, suicide and assault than in juvenile detention centers according to studies on juvenile suicide in adult institutions and youth facilities in the1980’s. The studies indicated that â€Å"the suicide rate of juveniles in adult jails is 7.7 times more likely than of juvenile detention centers. In 1989, five times as many youth held in adult prisons answered yes to the question has anyone attempted to sexually attack or rape you than those held in juvenile institutions while about 10% of the youth interviewed reported a sexual attack, or rape attempt.(Zeidenberg).Another factor of why children should not be tried as adults is that youths are easily victimized and beaten up by inmates and most likely staff, they are also for exampleShow MoreRelatedThe Epidemic Of Mass Incarceration Essay1880 Words   |  8 Pagessuch as the collapse of family structures, damage to mental, physical, and communal health, amongst other lasting impacts. Despite the commonalities, each artist takes on a different perspective on the issue and presents it in a different light. Essay A MK Asante, in his book Buck: The Memoir, highlights the devastation of mass incarceration on the family structure and on individuals, particularly young individuals, who are incarcerated. Asante utilizes an informal tone and jargon the way in whichRead MoreRace in Down These Mean Streets Essay3202 Words   |  13 Pagessuch as West Side Story make East Harlem an exciting and mysterious place. But hidden under the dirty faces of the children is the struggle in the search for acceptance and belong, as painfully narrated by Thomas in Down These Mean Streets. In this essay I will analyze how racial identity is constructed through his story and the relationship between racism and social problems such as gangs and crime in a place like East Harlem. Piri Thomas’ parents moved to New York from Puerto Rico during the 1920sRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pages...................................................................................................................... 67 CHAPTER 3 Writing with the Appropriate Precision .............................................................. 88 Being Ambiguous................................................................................................................................. 89 Context and Background Knowledge .......................................................................Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesPHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright  © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael Peter Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.—(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pagesadvised a young colleague, â€Å"If your students aren’t learning, you’re not teaching—you’re just talking!† Here’s what some authorities on higher education have to say about how effective teachers foster learning: â€Å"All genuine learning is active, not passive. It is a process of discovery in which the student is the main agent, not the teacher.† (Adler, 1982) â€Å"Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in a class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments,

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Social Security Act free essay sample

The Social Security Act of 1935, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, created a program that included social insurance programs, as well as public assistance. Both programs came about due to the depression and were created as part of the New Deal to benefit the citizens who needed assistance. While both programs were created to assist the public, each program had different eligibility requirements and accomplished different tasks. Social insurance programs were designed to provide continuing income to citizens over 65 after retirement, health benefits and provide benefits for the unemployed, survivors and disabled. Social insurance programs are non-means tested, work based and incorporate a large number of people while public assistance programs are small scale and means tested (Nelson Reid, personal communication, November 2010). Social insurance is composed of four components Old-Age and Survivor Insurance (OSAI), Federal Disability Insurance (DI), Federal Hospital Insurance (HI), and Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI). â€Å"The HI and SMI programs make up what is known as Medicare† (D. We will write a custom essay sample on Social Security Act or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Eitzen G. Sage, 2007). According to Eitzen and Sage, disability benefits were added in 1954 and provided benefits to the disabled and their dependents. The opposition to social insurance comes from a conservative point of view. Conservatives do not like the idea of the federal government serving as a â€Å"broker†. Conservatives feel that the government has no business in the planning of retirement (D. Eitzen G. Sage, 2007). Conservatives want privatization of social security and the government to refrain from taking money out of their checks. In contrast, public assistance programs were created to assist Americans who meet a certain financial eligibility standards. According to the text, there are three major public assistance programs including Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Security Income, and General Assistance (J. Marx, 2004). TANF, formerly known as, Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) was created in 1936, as a program to provide cash assistance to low- income families with children under sixteen. In the 1960’s the ADC ballooned into Aid to Dependent Families and Children allowing the stipend to increase to involve the caregiver. The Families used ADFC income to pay for expenses such as rent, utilities, food and other needs (hhs. state. ne. us,2009). ADFC discouraged marriage, pursuing a job which created a dependency on the program. By 1996, TANF was created to replace ADFC and created caps on the system. TANF is public assistance that requires participants to maintain a job and they can only receive benefits for a total of five years. People who qualify for TANF fall under the public’s eye as having a worthiness problem (N. Reid, personal communication, November, 2010). People tend to judge recipients of TANF creating harsh criticism about the program. Another program was Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program it was established to provide a minimum income for the disabled, blind and older Americans. This program works to help recipients with vocational skills therefore they can seek work opportunities. This is one of the least criticized programs by the public because the recipients are physically â€Å"worthy† of their benefits (J. Marx, 2004). The last major public assistance program is General Assistance which is a program that provides help for people who do not qualify for other areas of federal assistance. Each state has their own requirements for eligibility for general assistance services. This program is used as a â€Å"safety net† to help the people who are in need (J. Marx, 2004). Social Security is seen as one of the most successful government program in American history (D. Eitzen G. Sage, 2007) Major differences between social insurance and public assistance is the eligibility and public criticisms. Social insurance program eligibility is defined by recipients’ statute while, public assistance programs are based on financial eligibility requirements. The public also judges people who are receiving public assistance on their worthiness while people who receive social insurance benefits seem to have public support for increasing their benefits.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Procter and Gamble Culture and Diversity in Decision Making

A Brief Description of the Organization Procter and Gamble is a consumer goods corporation in America. It produces pet food, personal care products, as well as cleaning agents. Procter and Gamble are known for producing foods and beverages, but the latter sold that production line to Kellogg Company. It has received many ratings including being the fifth most admired company in the world. It is known for the best leadership development in the United States of America.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Procter and Gamble: Culture and Diversity in Decision Making specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Culture of Procter and Gamble The culture of a company establishes its success or failure. Scholars have defined organizational culture as the behavior of persons that are associated with a given organization. It also includes the meaning that individuals in an organization attach to their dealings. Flamholtz and Randle (2011) avow that, organizational culture incorporates norms, values, vision, beliefs, working language and habits. Organizational culture impinges on the way people and groups interrelate internally with customers and stakeholders. Procter and Gamble is an organization that believes in upholding culture for success in business. The company has diversified across the world at an alarming rate. Ever day, Procter and Gamble continue to expand in diversified fields. This makes it vital for the organization to have a unifying way of doing things. Organizational culture is key to providing uniformity in any organization (Flamholtz Randle, 2011). The organization believes in innovativeness, aggressiveness, teamwork, risk-taking, and people orientation. Ways in Which Procter and Gamble Shows This Culture Aggressiveness Aggressiveness is a key dimension in Procter and Gamble. Aggressiveness is the degree to which employees are insistent and competitive in an organization rather than coopera tive (Martin Frost, 2011). Procter uses aggressiveness in taking over companies that are fleeing out of business and then advertising them under their name brand. All the eleven managers of Procter insist on aggressiveness on employees’ part to ensure success in business. Aggressiveness ensures the smooth running of operations in an organization where workers are self-motivated other than being dragged along by the leaders. Consequently, aggressiveness guarantees high levels of production. This is because time is well managed since nobody needs to be told what to do and when. Every person in an organization that upholds aggressiveness sees the success of the company as their success, hence motivation. People Orientation People orientation is a scale to which executive decisions take into consideration the organizations impacts on people (Flamholtz Randle, 2011). Procter’s apprehension on people orientation culture is illustrated in that; managers emphasize that peopl e are the firm’s biggest assets.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To design a means for workers to bond, the organization would put up celebrations for the employees. Events of this nature allow employees to build associations with each other outside the work setting. The company holds on to the belief that people can do amazingly great things if given an opportunity. In all the companies under Procter Gamble, employees are seen as the source of success that each organization can achieve. Innovativeness Procter Gamble is both an innovative and peril captivating organization. Managers in this company inspire employees to be innovative and creative rather than just wait to follow orders from their leaders. This motivates employees to contribute towards production in the company as well as increase the overall efficiency of the company. As a result, employees in this o rganization become more competitive due to the freshness and creativity of the operations they undertake (Martin Frost, 2011). Risk Taking Procter Gamble is an entrepreneurial organization. The business management consists of eleven members, who are entrepreneurs in their way. This enables the organization to venture into opportunities that very few businesses would risk operating. Among the characteristics of entrepreneurial business is the capacity to take risks. Employees across organizations operating under and with Procter Gamble are expected to be risk takers. This is because of the organization ventures in new business every day. Additionally, novelty and risk-taking are aspects that go together (Martin Frost, 2011). Suitable Leader and Response to Decline in Demand The best leader for Procter Gamble is a person who possesses a democratic leadership style. This is because the company is an organization that has a strong belief in people’s ability. Therefore, it re quires a leader who can justly receive other people’s contributions concerning any development in the organization as well as put significance in what other members of the organization have to say. According to Dereli (2010), democratic leaders persuade economic development through the creation of new firms, which profit economic development by generating unrelenting productivity augments through innovation-driven growth in advanced economies. In case of a decrease in the demand of product(s) or services supplied by Procter Gamble, innovativeness is the change in its culture that would require being carried out in reaction to this condition. Also, the innovative nature of Procter Gamble Company demands that managers have some sense of democracy when it comes to leadership.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Procter and Gamble: Culture and Diversity in Decision Making specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Refer ences Dereli, M. (2010). Leadership Styles A Survey Research of Leadership Styles of Elementary School Principals. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. Flamholtz, E. Randle, Y. (2011). Corporate culture the ultimate strategic asset. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Business Books. Martin, J., Frost, P. (2011). The organizational culture war games. Sociology of Organizations: Structures and Relationships, 1(1), 315. This report on Procter and Gamble: Culture and Diversity in Decision Making was written and submitted by user Cam1la to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

mexicos new leader essays

mexicos new leader essays As a new president prepares to take power in Mexico, the biggest economic news is what's not happening. The peso is not plummeting, investors are not panicking, and people are not suddenly paying more for their tortillas or televisions. Given recent history, this is a small miracle: every presidential transition in the last two decades has been scarred by an economic crisis. Instead of fears, there are great hopes, all raised by the next president, Vicente Fox Quesada. Mr. Fox now must institutionalize the stability he has inherited. He has pledged sweeping tax and fiscal reforms, annual economic growth rates of up to 7 percent, millions of new jobs, a stable economic architecture for foreign capital, private investment in the state-run oil industry and competition in telecommunications. He also promises budget austerity, increased social spending, the rise of the rule of law, and an end to ingrained political corruption. Mexico is still very much a developing nation. Reliable electric power and potable water are sometimes hard to find. In the capital, one of the world's most populous and polluted cities, the elite live behind barricades, protected from the impoverished by armed guards. Middle-class Mexicans have less buying power than they did 20 years ago, and some of the biggest banks are shaky from a legacy of bad loans. Many small businesses are threatened by imports, credit is difficult to obtain, and millions of people scrape by on less than $2 a day. The departing president, Ernesto Zedillo, never addressed the huge structural problems of the state-run energy industries, which are inefficient and suppress competition, or of the justice system, which cannot control crime - a serious worry for foreign companies considering operations here even if they are optimistic about Mr. Fox. "He's going to have his hands full," said Peter E. Weber, vice president of Latin American operations for the FMC Corporation, a Chicago- base...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Module Title- Online Journalism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Module Title- Online Journalism - Essay Example 1996; Al Jazeera Sports, a popular Arabic-language sports channel launched in 2003; Al Jazeera Mobasher, also known as Al Jazeera Live, a live politics and public interest channel which broadcasts conferences in real time without editing or commentary, launched in 2005; Al Jazeera Childrens Channel, also known as JCC, a childrens interest channel launched in 2005; Al Jazeera English, a global English-language 24-hour news channel launched in 2006; and Al Jazeera Documentary Channel, an Arabic language documentary channel launched in 2007 (Wiki-Al Jazeera, 2008). Al Jazeera English is the 24-hour English-language news and current affairs channel of the Al Jazeera media group. It is the first global English language news channel that is headquartered in the Middle East, which the group believes is a unique position that will shape its destiny of becoming the English-language channel of reference for Middle Eastern events. With reference to Al Jazeera Arabic, its mother company and the historically significant broadcast of Osama bin Laden’s statements after September 11, 2001, Al Jazeera English aims to give voice to untold stories, promote debate, and challenge established perceptions. (Corp Profile, 2008). The internet website of Al Jazeera English is located at http://english.aljazeera.net/. This paper critically reviews the Al Jazeera English website in terms of content, design, functionality and navigation, as well as proposes technical and journalistic improvements to the site and its contents. Like most news websites, Al Jazeera English presents its headline news on its front page. But being an Islam-oriented site, the headline news consists of Islamic country/people-related news items. Also on the front page are quick links to world news; sports; programmes; focus features, analysis and comments; Al Jazeera English TV schedule; and featured videos. The front page also contains quick links to jobs with Al Jazeera, emails related to published articles, a